were protected after a single dose of the Pfizer vaccine and only 27 percent after a single dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine. (In Britain, the current practice is to delay second doses to stretch vaccine availability.)

Likewise, another study published last month indicated that fewer than 15 percent of patients with cancers of blood or the immune system, and fewer than 40 percent of those with solid tumors, produced antibodies after receiving a single dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine.

And a study published last month in the journal JAMA reported that only 17 percent of 436 transplant recipients who got one dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine had detectable antibodies three weeks later.

Despite the low odds, immunocompromised people should still get the vaccines because they may produce some immune cells that are protective, even antibodies in a subset of patients.

“These patients should probably be prioritized for optimally timed two doses,” said Dr. Tariq Ahmad, a gastroenterologist at the Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust who was involved in the infliximab studies.

He suggested that clinicians routinely measure antibody responses in immunocompromised people even after two vaccine doses, so as to identify those who also may need monoclonal antibodies to prevent infection or a third dose of the vaccines.

Wendy Halperin, 54, was diagnosed at age 28 with a condition called common variable immunodeficiency. She was hospitalized with Covid-19 in January and remained there for 15 days. But the coronavirus induced unusual symptoms.

“I was having trouble walking,” she recalled. “I just lost control of my limbs, like I couldn’t walk down the street.”

Because she was treated for Covid-19 with convalescent plasma, Ms. Halperin has had to wait three months to be immunized and has made an appointment for April 26. But despite her condition, her body did manage to produce some antibodies to the initial infection.

“The take home message is that everybody should try and get the vaccine,” said Dr. Amit Verma, an oncologist at Montefiore Medical Center.

The gamble did not pay off in Dr. Wollowitz’s case. Without antibodies in his system to protect him, he is still working from home — a privilege he is grateful for. He was an avid mountain biker and advanced skier, both of which carry risk of injury, but with the coronavirus, he is playing it safe.

In anticipation of returning to his normal lifestyle, Dr. Wollowitz is tuning his bicycles. But he said he foresaw himself living this way till enough other people are vaccinated and the number of infections in the city drops.

“I’m not exactly sure what that date is,” he said. “I’m really waiting to get back out.”

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Some Long Covid-19 Patients Feel Better After Vaccine Doses

One survey of 345 people, mostly women and mostly in the U.K., found that two weeks or more after their second vaccine dose, 93 felt slightly better and 18 felt back to normal — a total of 32 percent reporting improved long Covid symptoms.

In that survey, by Gez Medinger, a London-based filmmaker who has experienced post-Covid symptoms, 61 people, just under 18 percent, felt worse, most of them reporting only a slight decline in their condition. Nearly half — 172 people — reported feeling no different.

Another survey, by Survivor Corps, a group of over 150,000 Covid survivors, found that as of March 17, 225 of 577 respondents reported some improvement, while 270 felt no change and 82 felt worse.

Jim Golen, 55, of Saginaw, Minn., feels some long Covid symptoms have worsened since his vaccination. Mr. Golen, a former hospice nurse who also has a small farm, had experienced months of difficulty, including blood clots in his lungs, chest pain, brain fog, insomnia and shortness of breath with any exertion. Late last year, after seeing several doctors, “I was finally starting to get better,” he said.

Since receiving the second dose of the Pfizer vaccine in mid-January, he said, his chest burning and shortness of breath have returned with a vengeance, especially if he taxes himself with activities like collecting sap from the maple trees on his farm. Nonetheless, Mr. Golen said he was “very happy” to be vaccinated, emphasizing that the effects of Covid were worse and preventing it is crucial.

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Some Long Covid Patients Feel Better After Getting the Vaccine

One survey of 345 people, mostly women and mostly in the U.K., found that two weeks or more after their second vaccine dose, 93 felt slightly better and 18 felt back to normal — a total of 32 percent reporting improved long Covid symptoms.

In that survey, by Gez Medinger, a London-based filmmaker who has experienced post-Covid symptoms, 61 people, just under 18 percent, felt worse, most of them reporting only a slight decline in their condition. Nearly half — 172 people — reported feeling no different.

Another survey, by Survivor Corps, a group of over 150,000 Covid survivors, found that as of March 16, 207 of 508 respondents reported some improvement, while 231 felt no change and 70 felt worse.

Jim Golen, 55, of Saginaw, Minn., feels some long Covid symptoms have worsened since his vaccination. Mr. Golen, a former hospice nurse who also has a small farm, had experienced months of difficulty, including blood clots in his lungs, chest pain, brain fog, insomnia and shortness of breath with any exertion. Late last year, after seeing several doctors, “I was finally starting to get better,” he said.

Since receiving the second dose of the Pfizer vaccine in mid-January, he said, his chest burning and shortness of breath have returned with a vengeance, especially if he taxes himself with activities like collecting sap from the maple trees on his farm. Nonetheless, Mr. Golen said he was “very happy” to be vaccinated, emphasizing that the effects of Covid were worse and preventing it is crucial.

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