Mark Leonard, the director of the European Council on Foreign Relations, who has written about modernizing the institution.

Far from the royal palaces, Britain is nevertheless reinventing itself. As of 2011, nearly one in 10 people living in a couple in England and Wales was part of an interethnic relationship. London neighborhoods are less segregated than many cities in the United States. Elements of other cultures are slowly being absorbed into the British identity.

Not everyone is pleased with that transition; one of the appeals of Brexit was the promise of limiting immigration.

two-thirds of its deaths during the pandemic.

Senior leaders are overwhelmingly white, a phenomenon once described as the “snowy white peaks of the N.H.S.,” and nonwhite staff members are likelier to enter disciplinary proceedings.

Like the royal family, the British media, too, has often seemed to many Black Britons like it was made for a white audience. This week, television hosts have wondered aloud why asking about Archie’s skin was any different from speculating about a white baby’s hair.

Izabelle Lee, 23, said the coverage had an effect. An actress born to a white British mother and a Black Trinidadian father, she said that articles stoking fear of illegal migrants preoccupied her white grandparents.

golliwog, a racist caricature, enraging her mother. Watching Meghan speak this week, Ms. Lee said she recognized the look in her mother’s eyes when she spoke of how relatives reacted to her marrying a Black man.

“I think she felt an unfairness, and a tension,” Ms. Lee said of her mother, “that if she had a child with a white man, she wouldn’t have felt.”

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