Travel-Ready Center allows passengers with booked tickets to view country-specific entry requirements and schedule tests, and will soon allow customers to upload and store their vaccination records on the website before they travel. American’s online travel tool on the company’s website already allows passengers to store required documents like proof of negative coronavirus tests.

One airline that has been focusing on flights between the United States and international destinations is not a U.S. carrier, but a Middle Eastern one: Emirates. The United Arab Emirates opened up to leisure and business travelers last July and Emirates is already offering direct service to Dubai from Los Angeles, San Francisco, Dallas, Houston, Chicago, Washington, D.C., New York and Boston. Passengers can also connect from there to other destinations in the Middle East, Africa and West Asia. The company recently announced it would resume its flight between Newark and Athens on June 1.

health and cleaning protocols they put in place during the pandemic. Some have been adding on-site virus testing. In addition, so-called “touchless technology,” like phone apps for ordering food, will continue to be rolled out. A report by Medallia Zingle, a communications software maker, found that 77 percent of consumers surveyed said the amount of in-person interaction required at a business will factor into their decision on whether or not they visit that business.

Marriott, one of the world’s largest international hotel companies, with some 7,600 hotels under 30 brands, has implemented a set of practices it calls Commitment to Clean that includes sanitizing properties with hospital-grade disinfectants, using air-purifying systems and spreading out lobby furniture to facilitate social distancing. Some properties offer free coronavirus testing.

Recently the company announced a pilot program introducing self-serve check-in kiosks that create room keys and allow guests to bypass the front desk. It is also adding more “grab and go” food options.

Hyatt, another major international brand, is also continuing to focus on cleanliness. Currently, it is working with the Global Biorisk Advisory Council and Cleveland Clinic to create its Global Care and Cleanliness Commitment. Those practices will “remain in place during the pandemic and beyond,” Amy Weinberg, Hyatt’s senior vice president of loyalty, brand marketing and consumer insights, wrote in an email.

its Hôtel du Palais in Biarritz, France, one of its last remaining closed properties. Almost all Hyatt properties have been open since last December, and in February the company began arranging for guests staying at Hyatt resorts in Latin America who planned to travel back to the United States to get free on-site coronavirus testing.

IHG’s Kimpton brand with 73 hotels in 11 countries plans on modifying its protocols this summer where it feels they are safe and local ordinances allow — for example, bringing back the manager-hosted social hour, a guest favorite.

The four Kimpton hotels in Britain that closed because of the pandemic are currently scheduled to reopen by the end of May. A new Kimpton property in Bangkok that opened in October of 2020 to local guests will welcome international travelers this fall. The company also plans to open a new hotel in Bali and one in Paris later this year.

“Hoteliers are chafing at the bit” to reopen and are able to do so quickly, said Robin Rossman, the managing director of the hospitality analytics company STR. The global hotel sector, though, will likely take up to two years to make a full return, he said.

Geographic Expeditions, which did not run any trips last summer, reported that its bookings have picked up significantly in the past few months. It plans to run 20 international trips this summer, both to familiar destinations such as the Galápagos, and some off the beaten path, including Pakistan and Namibia. There are only about 25 percent fewer guests signed up now than there were for 2019 summer trips, according to the chief executive, Brady Binstadt, and they are “spending more than before — they’re splurging on that nicer hotel suite or charter flight or special experience.”

The company chose its first destinations based on entry requirements and client interest and then adjusted itineraries to avoid crowds, minimize internal flights and make sure guests had access to required testing. One expedition required flying a Covid-19 test into a safari lodge in Botswana via helicopter.

A guest recently moved a Geographic Expeditions trip planned for 2022 departure forward to 2021. The company hopes this will become a trend.

Abercrombie & Kent restarted its small-group and private trips last fall and early winter to places like Egypt, Costa Rica and Tanzania, and is continuing to expand choices as countries open up. “There’s been a noticeable spike in people calling who have had their first vaccine,” said Stefanie Schmudde, the vice-president of product development and operations. Bookings in March rose more than 50 percent over bookings in February, according to the company.

Ms. Schmudde monitors global travel conditions intently, and can rattle off names of countries that have been open to tourists for a few months and those she expects to open soon. She predicts Japan and China will open up this fall, but does not expect Europe to welcome many visitors any time soon.

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Denmark says it’s permanently stopping use of the AstraZeneca vaccine.

Denmark on Wednesday became the first country to plan to permanently stop administering the AstraZeneca vaccine, a month after suspending its use following reports that a small number of recipients had developed a rare but serious blood-clotting disorder.

The director general of the country’s health authority, Soeren Brostroem, said Denmark was able to halt use of the vaccine because it had the pandemic under control and could rely on two other vaccines, from Pfizer and Moderna.

The Danish announcement is another setback for the AstraZeneca shot, which is easy to store and relatively cheap, and was expected to be the foundation of vaccination campaigns around the world.

The country initially suspended the use of the vaccine on March 11, along with Iceland and Norway. Several other European countries, including France, Germany and Italy, followed suit last month.

later recommended that countries keep using the vaccine, saying its benefits far outweighed any potential risks for most people.

Last week, though, the European regulator listed blood clots as a potential very rare side effect of the vaccine.

Several countries that had paused and restarted use of the vaccine have since said they would stop using it in younger people. Britain, which has administered around 20 million AstraZeneca doses, said it would offer alternative vaccines to people under 30.

“Based on the scientific findings, our overall assessment is there is a real risk of severe side effects associated with using the Covid-19 vaccine from AstraZeneca,” Dr. Brostroem, the Danish health official, said in a statement. “We have, therefore, decided to remove the vaccine from our vaccination program.”

“If Denmark were in a completely different situation and in the midst of a violent third outbreak, for example, and a health care system under pressure,” he added, “then I would not hesitate to use the vaccine, even if there were rare but severe complications associated with using it.”

Danish health officials said that they might reintroduce the AstraZeneca vaccine “if the situation changes.”

Public health officials have warned that pausing administration of vaccines like AstraZeneca’s or Johnson & Johnson’s could do more harm than good. They note that among seven million people vaccinated with the single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine in the United States, six women had developed the rare blood clots — fewer than one in one million. It is not yet known whether the vaccine had anything to do with the clots, but even if it did, the risk is smaller than that of getting struck by lightning in a given year (one in 500,000).

Denmark, which has a population of 5.8 million, has managed to contain the pandemic better than its neighbor Sweden or many other European countries. As of Wednesday, Denmark had recorded 2,447 Covid-related deaths.

Almost one million people in the country have received at least a first dose of a vaccine, 77 percent of them the one from Pfizer, according to Denmark’s Serum Institute. Around 15 percent received a first dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine before the authorities suspended its use last month, and the remaining 8 percent received the Moderna vaccine.

The country’s health authorities said that people who received a first dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine would be offered a different vaccine for their second dose.

Jasmina Nielsen contributed reporting.

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After Going ‘Free of L.G.B.T.,’ a Polish Town Pays a Price

KRASNIK, Poland — When local councilors adopted a resolution two years ago declaring their small town in southeastern Poland “free of L.G.B.T.,” the mayor didn’t see much harm in what appeared to be a symbolic and legally pointless gesture.

Today, he’s scrambling to contain the damage.

What initially seemed a cost-free sop to conservatives in the rural and religiously devout Polish borderlands next to Ukraine, the May 2019 decision has become a costly embarrassment for the town of Krasnik. It has jeopardized millions of dollars in foreign funding and, Mayor Wojciech Wilk said, turned “our town into a synonym for homophobia,” which he insisted was not accurate.

A French town last year severed a partnership with Krasnik in protest. And Norway, from which the mayor had hoped to get nearly $10 million starting this year to finance development projects, said in September that it would not give grants to any Polish town that declares itself “free of L.G.B.T.”

“We have become Europe’s laughingstock, and it’s the citizens not the local politicians who’ve suffered most,” lamented Mr. Wilk, who is now lobbying councilors to repeal the resolution that put the town’s 32,000 residents in the middle of a raucous debate over traditional and modern values. The situation also illustrates the real-life consequences of political posturing in the trenches of Europe’s culture wars.

rally its base before a presidential election in 2020, did not bar gay people from entering or threaten expulsion for those already present. Instead they vowed to keep out “L.G.B.T. ideology,” a term used by conservatives to describe ideas and lifestyles they view as threatening to Polish tradition and Christian values.

Cezary Nieradko, a 22-year-old student who describes himself as Krasnik’s “only open gay,” dismissed the term “L.G.B.T. ideology” as a smoke screen for homophobia. He recalled how, after the town adopted its resolution, his local pharmacist refused to fill his prescription for a heart drug.

will cut funding to any Polish town that violates Europe’s commitment to tolerance and equality.

The European Parliament also passed a resolution last month declaring all 27 countries in the bloc an L.G.B.T. “Freedom Zone,” although like the Polish resolutions declaring the opposite, the declaration has no legal force.

All the posturing, however, has begun to have concrete consequences.

Krasnik’s mayor said he worried that unless his town’s “free of L.G.B.T.” status is rescinded, he has little chance of securing foreign funds to finance electric buses and youth programs, which he said are particularly important because young people keep leaving.

called off the visit to Krasnik after what he described as pressure from Polish officials not to go, a claim that Poland’s foreign ministry said was untrue.

When Krasnik and other towns adopted “free of L.G.B.T.” resolutions in early 2019, few people paid attention to what was widely seen as a political stunt by a governing party that delights in offending its foes’ “political correctness.”

But that changed early last year when Bartosz Staszewski, an L.G.B.T. activist from Warsaw began visiting towns that had vowed to banish “L.G.B.T. ideology.” Mr. Staszewski, a documentary filmmaker, took with him an official-looking yellow sign on which was written in four languages: “L.G.B.T.-FREE ZONE.” He put the fake sign next to each town’s real sign, taking photographs that he posted on social media.

The action, which he called “performance art,” provoked outrage across Europe as it put a spotlight on what Mr. Staszewski described in an interview in Warsaw as a push by conservatives to “turn basic human rights into an ideology.”

Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki has accused Mr. Staszewski of generating a fake scandal over “no-go zones” that don’t exist. Several towns, supported by a right-wing outfit partly funded by the government, have filed defamation suits against the activist over his representation of bans on “ideology” as barring L.G.B.T. people.

But even those who support the measures often seem confused about what it is that they want excluded.

Asked on television whether the region surrounding Krasnik would become Poland’s first L.G.B.T.-free zone, Elzbieta Kruk, a prominent Law and Justice politician, said, “I think Poland is going to be the first area free of L.G.B.T.” She later reversed herself and said the target was “L.G.B.T. ideology.”

For Mr. Wilk, Krasnik’s mayor, the semantic squabbling is a sign that it is time to drop attempts to make the town “free” of anyone or anything.

But Mr. Albiniak, the initiator of the resolution, vowed to resist what he denounced as blackmail by foreigners threatening to withhold funds.

“If I vote to repeal,” he said, “I vote against myself.”

Anatol Magdziarz contributed reporting.

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Blood Clots Linked to AZ Vaccine Stem From Rare Antibody Reaction

Two reports published on Friday in a leading medical journal help to explain how AstraZeneca’s Covid vaccine can, in rare cases, cause serious and sometimes fatal blood clots.

Scientific teams from Germany and Norway found that people who developed the clots after vaccination had produced antibodies that activated their platelets, a blood component involved in clotting. The new reports add extensive details to what the researchers have already stated publicly about the blood disorder.

Why the rare reaction occurred is not known. Younger people appear more susceptible than older ones, but researchers say no pre-existing health conditions are known to predispose people to the problem, so there is no way to tell if an individual is at high risk.

Reports of the clots have already led a number of countries to limit AstraZeneca’s vaccine to older people, or to stop using it entirely. The cases have dealt a crushing blow to global efforts to halt the pandemic, because the AstraZeneca shot — easy to store and relatively cheap — has been a mainstay of vaccination programs in more than 100 countries.

statement on its website, AstraZeneca said it was “actively collaborating with the regulators to implement these changes to the product information and is already working to understand the individual cases, epidemiology and possible mechanisms that could explain these extremely rare events.”

The two new reports were published by The New England Journal of Medicine. One from Germany describes 11 patients, including nine women ages 22 to 49. Five to 16 days after vaccination, they were found to have one or more clots. Nine had cerebral venous thrombosis, a clot blocking a vein that drains blood from the brain. Some had clots in their lungs, abdomen or other areas. Six of the 11 died, one from a brain hemorrhage.

One patient had pre-existing conditions that affected clotting, but during a news briefing on Friday, Dr. Andreas Greinacher, an author of the report, said those conditions most likely played only a minor role in the disorder that occurred after vaccination.

second report, from Norway, described five patients, one male and four female health care workers ages 32 to 54, who had clots and bleeding from seven to 10 days after receiving the AstraZeneca vaccine. Four had severe clots in the brain, and three died. Severe headaches were among their early symptoms. Like the German patients, all had high levels of antibodies that could activate platelets.

The team from Norway also recommended treatment with intravenous immune globulin. The researchers said the disorder was rare, but “a new phenomenon with devastating effects for otherwise healthy young adults,” and they suggested that it may be more common than previous studies of the AstraZeneca vaccine had indicated.

On Friday, European regulators also said they were reviewing reports of a few blood clot cases that occurred in people who had received the Johnson and Johnson vaccine. In the United States, federal agencies are investigating reports of a different type of unusual blood disorder involving a precipitous drop in platelets that emerged in a few people who had received either the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines.

Benjamin Mueller and Melissa Eddy contributed.

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Help! I Want to Go to Europe in August. Is This a Pipe Dream?

My husband and I are currently planning a trip to Ireland, Portugal and Italy for August and September. We are only reserving hotels with free cancellation policies and our airline tickets can be changed to a future date. Knowing that much of Europe is closed right now to United States citizens because of the virus, is there much hope that our plans will materialize, or are we wasting our time? What should I watch for? Kathy

Although there are some signs of life — Iceland is newly open to fully vaccinated travelers and Greece will reopen to vaccinated or virus-tested visitors next month — Europe, where case counts are rising in some parts and the vaccine rollout has been disappointingly slow, is still largely closed to Americans. Ireland is open to United States citizens with a combination of testing and quarantine, but Portugal and Italy, like most of the continent, for now remain off limits. Italy, in particular, was hard-hit by the virus in the early months of the pandemic; and in March, the spread of a contagious variant from Britain pushed the country back into another lockdown.

“This environment is so challenging because there is significant pressure for countries that rely on tourism to rebound, which counterbalances much slower vaccination rates in Europe,” said Fallon Lieberman, who runs the leisure-travel division of Skylark, a travel agency affiliated with the Virtuoso travel network. “So unfortunately, those two forces are at odds with one another.”

Your question, like many related to the pandemic, involves various degrees of risk. First, let’s look at the concrete risk: If you book now for late summer, how likely are you to lose money?

flexibility with seats beyond Basic Economy, and now, especially, it’s wise to book tickets that can be easily changed. Delta Air Lines has eliminated change and cancellation fees for all flights originating from North America, and Delta eCredits set to expire this year — including for new tickets purchased this year — can be used for travel through 2022. United Airlines has also permanently eliminated change fees.

Unlike a plane ticket, which can always be changed (either for free or for a fee), a nonrefundable hotel reservation is generally exactly that: a use-it-or-lose-it investment.

The good news: “Hotels in Europe — and around the world, really — are being quite flexible,” said Ms. Lieberman, who has helped hundreds of Skylark clients cancel and rebook last year’s felled Europe trips, many to this summer and beyond. “While this is a very challenging time, many suppliers are providing maximum flexibility.”

Cancellation policies vary by property, but many of the multinational companies have made it easy, and relatively risk-free, to plan ahead. Companies like Hilton and Four Seasons are allowing cancellations up to 24 hours before check-in. Hyatt is allowing fee-free cancellations up to 24 hours in advance for arrivals through July 31 (and it’s always possible that date will be extended). For points nerds, most of the big hotel chains allow most award nights to be canceled scot-free, with the points redeposited, within a day or two of the expected check-in.

More complicated than physical refunds, though, is the larger, metaphysical risk: How likely is it that this trip is actually going to happen? What forces can help predict whether the Europe trips we book today will actually materialize in August and September?

France and Italy have just been locked down again, interest in Europe is rising, aided, no doubt, by signs that President Biden could lift the ban on European visitors to the United States as early as next month, news of the possibility of European health passes, rumors that Spain and Britain could both restart international tourism in mid May, and more.

At Hopper, a travel-booking app that analyzes and predicts flight and hotel prices, bookings for Europe-bound summer 2021 travel surged 68 percent week-over-week between the last week of February and the first week of March. Searches for round-trip flights to Europe departing this summer increased a whopping 86 percent in the 30 days following February 22.

According to TripAdvisor data of hotel searches from the United States for this summer, five of the 10 most-searched European destinations were in Greece, but Rome — and Paris, for that matter — were also on the list.

To make sense of how traveler zeal will jibe with the realities of the pandemic, analysts and travel industry experts are eyeing several factors, including flight schedules.

According to PlaneStats, the aviation-data portal from Oliver Wyman, an international consulting firm, the number of Europe-bound flights scheduled to depart the United States this month is around 26 percent of the number that departed the United States for Europe in April 2019. Next month compared to May 2019, that figure is looking even higher so far: 35 percent. (April and May 2020, by contrast, both clocked in at 5 percent.) That’s lower than normal, but it’s still a drastic uptick from any other point during the pandemic. Although many will be connecting flights (Americans can still transit through Europe) or culminate in destinations like London (Americans can visit England, though multiple testing and quarantines are required), schedules still remain a key indicator.

Khalid Usman, a partner and aviation expert at Oliver Wyman. “What airlines don’t want to do is put out schedules where people are not going to be traveling.”

Pandemic Navigator, which simulates day-by-day immunity growth. “That’s good news for the domestic market, but in the context of international travel, we do have to realize that it’s not just about one country — it’s a country at the other end as well.”

Factoring in the spotty vaccine rollout across the pond, Mr. Usman said it’s reasonable to assume that Europe’s herd immunity will lag several months behind the United States. Over the next several months, he added, European countries will follow in Iceland’s footsteps and open individually, complete with their own regulations about vaccinations, testing and quarantines. To spur travel across the continent this summer, the European Union is considering adopting a vaccine certificate for its own residents and their families.

“It’s not going to be a binary open-or-shut,” Mr. Usman said. “Countries are going to start getting more selective about who they’re going to start letting in.”

Italy’s numbers — plus new lockdowns and growing Covid variants — seem to be stifling optimism; Hopper flight searches from the United States to Italy have remained relatively flat.

For now, Ms. Lieberman, of Skylark, has adopted a “beyond the boot” mind-set: “Our theory is that if you’re willing to go beyond the boot — meaning, Italy — there will be fabulous, desirable summer destinations for you to take advantage of.”

Portugal surged in January but has recently eased lockdown measures as infection rates have slowed. The country is now aiming for a 70 percent vaccination rate this summer.

American interest in Portugal is spiking in response. In the first week of March, following an announcement that Portugal could welcome tourists from Britain as soon as mid-May, Hopper searches on flights from the United States to Lisbon rose 63 percent. (That’s not far behind Athens, for which travel searches shot up 75 percent in the same time period.)

will next month start nonstop service between Boston and Reykjavik — and resume its Iceland service from New York City and Minneapolis.

“Unless demand spikes rapidly enough to outpace the increase in supply, flash sales can be found as airlines attempt to entice travelers to return amid piecemeal easings of travel restrictions,” said Mr. Damodaran. Icelandair, for example, is running sales on flights and packages through April 13.

And with prices for summer flights to Europe still relatively low in general — down by more than 10 percent from 2019, according to Hopper — experts see little downside in penciling in a trip.

“If you’re willing to take some risk, plan early and lock in your preferred accommodations and ideal itineraries,” Ms. Lieberman said. “But of course we caution you to be prepared to have to move deposits and dates if it comes to that.”

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Fully Vaccinated Americans Can Travel With Low Risk, C.D.C. Says

Americans who are fully vaccinated against Covid-19 can safely travel at home and abroad, as long as they take basic precautions like wearing masks, federal health officials announced on Friday, a long-awaited change from the dire government warnings that have kept many millions home for the past year.

In announcing the change at a White House news conference, officials from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stressed that they preferred that people avoid travel. But they said growing evidence of the real-world effectiveness of the vaccines — which have been given to more than 100 million Americans — suggested that inoculated people could do so “at low risk to themselves.”

The shift in the C.D.C.’s official stance comes at a moment of both hope and peril in the pandemic. The pace of vaccinations has been rapidly accelerating across the country, and the number of deaths has been declining.

Yet cases are increasing significantly in many states as new variants of the coronavirus spread through the country. Just last Monday, Dr. Rochelle P. Walensky, the C.D.C. director, warned of a potential fourth wave if states and cities continued to loosen public health restrictions, telling reporters that she had feelings of “impending doom.”

suggested such cases might be rare, but until that question is resolved, many public health officials feel it is unwise to tell vaccinated Americans simply to do as they please. They say it is important for all vaccinated people to continue to wear masks, practice social distancing and take other precautions.

Under the new C.D.C. guidance, fully vaccinated Americans who are traveling domestically do not need to be tested for the coronavirus or follow quarantine procedures at the destination or after returning home. When they travel abroad, they only need to get a coronavirus test or quarantine if the country they are going to requires it.

coronavirus test before boarding a flight back to the United States, and they should get tested again three to five days after their return.

The recommendation is predicated on the idea that vaccinated people may still become infected with the virus. The C.D.C. also cited a lack of vaccine coverage in other countries, and concern about the potential introduction and spread of new variants of the virus that are more prevalent overseas.

Most states have accelerated their timelines for opening vaccinations to all adults, as the pace of vaccinations across the country has been increasing. As of Friday, an average of nearly three million shots a day were being administered, according to data reported by the C.D.C.

The new advice adds to C.D.C. recommendations issued in early March saying that fully vaccinated people may gather in small groups in private settings without masks or social distancing, and may visit with unvaccinated individuals from a single household as long as they are at low risk for developing severe disease if infected with the virus.

Travel has already been increasing nationwide, as the weather warms and Americans grow fatigued with pandemic restrictions. Last Sunday was the busiest day at domestic airports since the pandemic began. According to the Transportation Security Administration, nearly 1.6 million people passed through the security checkpoints at American airports.

But the industry’s concerns are far from over. The pandemic has also shown businesses large and small that their employees can often be just as productive working remotely as in face-to-face meetings. As a result, the airline and hotel industries expect it will be years before lucrative corporate travel recovers to prepandemic levels, leaving a gaping hole in revenues.

And while leisure travel within the United States may be recovering steadily, airlines expect it will still take until 2023 or 2024 for passenger volumes to reach 2019 levels, according to Airlines for America, an industry group. The industry lost more than $35 billion last year and continues to lose tens of millions of dollars each day, the group said.

the country’s government said

The C.D.C. on Thursday also issued more detailed technical instructions for cruise lines, requiring them to take steps to develop vaccination strategies and make plans for routine testing of crew members and daily reporting of Covid-19 cases before they can run simulated trial runs of voyages with volunteers, before taking on real passengers. The C.D.C.’s directives acknowledge that taking cruises “will always pose some risk of Covid-19 transmission.”

Some destinations and cruise lines have already started requiring that travelers be fully vaccinated. The cruise line Royal Caribbean is requiring passengers and crew members 18 or older to be vaccinated in order to board its ships, as are Virgin Voyages, Crystal Cruises and others.

For the moment, airlines are not requiring vaccinations for travel. But the idea has been much talked about in the industry.

Niraj Chokshi contributed reporting.

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The CDC’s Guidelines on Vaccinated Americans Traveling: Q&A

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention updated its guidance for fully vaccinated Americans on Friday, saying that traveling both domestically and internationally was low risk.

The long-awaited recommendations were issued by federal health officials after a series of studies found that vaccines administered in the United States were robustly effective in preventing infections in real-life conditions.

Still, the C.D.C. is not recommending travel at this time because of the rising number of cases of the coronavirus, both at home and abroad.

One is considered fully vaccinated two weeks after receiving the single dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, or two weeks after receiving the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna shots.

Most of Europe is still off-limits to American citizens, although some countries such as Iceland are allowing in vaccinated visitors from the United States and elsewhere. Other places like Turkey, Croatia and Montenegro and have been welcoming Americans with negative test results, while Greece plans to open up to fully vaccinated tourists and other foreigners with a negative test in May.

Many Caribbean nations have reopened to American tourists, but each has its own coronavirus protocols and entry requirements.

Here’s a full list of countries Americans can travel to.

Domestic travel has been complicated this past year, with the states and territories instituting their own travel restrictions and recommendations throughout the pandemic (and frequently updating them).

If you are fully vaccinated, the C.D.C. says you can travel freely within the United States and that you do not need to get tested, or self-quarantine, before or after traveling. But some states and local governments may choose to keep travel restrictions in place, including testing, quarantine and stay-at-home orders.

Before you travel across state lines, check the current rules at your destination and whether the state is waiving testing and quarantines for vaccinated people. You can find a list of current restrictions here.

Right now, the best way to prove that you have been vaccinated is to show your vaccine card.

Digital vaccine and health certificates showing that people have been vaccinated or tested are in various stages of development around the world and are expected, eventually, to be widely used to speed up travel.

The subject of “vaccine passports” is currently one of the most hotly debated topics within the travel industry, with questions over the equity of their use and concerns over health and data privacy.

On Friday, Gov. Ron DeSantis of Florida issued an executive order that would ban local governments and state businesses from requiring proof of vaccination for services.

Last month, the European Union endorsed its own vaccine certificate, but individual European countries are still expected to set their own rules for travel requirements this summer.

but recent clinical trials have found the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus vaccine to be extremely effective in young adolescents aged 12-15.

All air passengers aged two and older coming into the United States, including fully vaccinated people, are required to have a negative Covid-19 test result taken no more than three days before they board their flight.

The United States inoculation rollout has been among the fastest in the world, but there is a stark gap between its rapid rollout and the vaccination programs in different countries. Some nations have yet to report a single dose being administered.

Many countries are currently seeing a surge in new cases and are implementing strict coronavirus protocols, including mask mandates in public spaces, capacity limits at restaurants and tourist sites and other lockdown restrictions.

It is important to check coronavirus case rates, measures and medical infrastructure before traveling to your destination and not to let your guard down when you get there. Even though you are fully vaccinated, you may still be able to transmit the disease to local communities who have not yet been inoculated.

You can track coronavirus vaccination rollouts around the world here.

Follow New York Times Travel on Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. And sign up for our weekly Travel Dispatch newsletter to receive expert tips on traveling smarter and inspiration for your next vacation.

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Vaccinated Americans Can Travel, C.D.C. Says

Americans who are fully vaccinated against Covid-19 can travel “at low risk to themselves,” both within the United States and internationally, but they must continue to take precautions like wearing a mask in public, avoiding crowds, maintaining social distancing and washing hands frequently, federal health officials said on Friday.

Vaccinated Americans do not need to get a coronavirus test before arriving in another country, unless required to do so by authorities at the destination, and they do not need to quarantine after returning to the United States unless required to do so by local jurisdictions, according to new recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

But vaccinated travelers should have a negative result from a coronavirus test before boarding a flight back to the United States, and they should get tested again three to five days after their return home. The recommendation is predicated on the idea that vaccinated people may still be infected with the virus.

People are considered fully vaccinated two weeks after receiving the single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine, or two weeks after receiving the second dose of the two-dose regimen from Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna.

fully vaccinated people may gather in small groups in private settings without masks or social distancing, and may visit with unvaccinated individuals from a single household as long as they are at low risk for developing severe disease if infected with the virus.

The recommendations issued Friday do not alter the C.D.C. travel guidelines for the unvaccinated. The agency continues to discourage non-essential domestic travel by those who are not fully immunized, saying that if they must travel, they should be tested for coronavirus infection one to three days before their trip and again three to five days after concluding their trip. Unvaccinated travelers should self-quarantine for seven to 10 days if they don’t get tested after a trip, the agency said.

The C.D.C.’s guidance does not change the fact that many countries, including those in the European Union, still block most Americans from coming. Some are starting to make exceptions for those who are vaccinated. As of March 26, fully vaccinated Americans who can present proof of vaccination can visit Iceland, for example, and avoid border measures such as testing and quarantining, the country’s government said.

Some destinations and cruise lines already have started requiring that travelers be fully vaccinated. The cruise line Royal Caribbean is requiring passengers and crew members 18 or older to be vaccinated in order to board its ships, as are Virgin Voyages, Crystal Cruises and others.

For the moment, airlines are not requiring vaccinations for travel. But the idea has been much talked about in the industry.

Air travel bookings have been slowly increasing as more Americans get vaccinated. But it is mostly flights to and from small, regional vacation-destination airports that have been thriving, while large hub airports are seeing just a fraction of the travelers they did at this time last year. The new C.D.C. guidance is likely to boost air travel, but it will take until 2023 and 2024 before there is a return to the volumes of 2019, according to Airlines for America, an industry group.

On Thursday, the Transportation Security Administration reported more than 1.5 million travelers going through security checkpoints at airports, with the number of travelers increasing since early-to-mid March. While that is a significant increase compared with the 124,000 people screened a year ago, it is still 35 percent less than it was in 2019. On Sunday, the agency screened nearly 1.6 million people at airports.

On Sunday, nearly 1.6 million passengers boarded domestic flights, the most on any day since the pandemic began.

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Can U.S. Travelers Go To Europe? Here’s What to Know

With the number of people in the United States vaccinated against the coronavirus climbing, Americans are starting to explore their prospects for international travel this summer, a season when Europe is traditionally a big draw.

Most of Europe has been off-limits to most U.S. citizens for over a year, and the continent is currently grappling with a third wave of coronavirus infections and a surge in new, more contagious variants, making it unclear when its borders will reopen. But some European countries have started to welcome vaccinated travelers, including American tourists, and others are making preparations to ease restrictions in time for the summer season.

Vaccine and health certificates that would help speed travel are under development, which could make it easier for tourism to restart. The 27 member countries of the European Union have endorsed the idea of a vaccine certificate. While individual European countries will still set their own rules, the initiative is expected to establish a coordinated approach across the continent.

“Finally, we have a tangible solution to coordinating and harmonizing travel measures,” said Eduardo Santander, chief executive of the European Travel Commission, an association of national tourism organizations based in Brussels. “I think other countries like the U.S. will also come up with their own technological solutions that will be compatible and after a period of trials this summer, a global standard will be established.”

including Albania and Armenia.

As the number of cases has risen in Europe, and vaccination has been sluggish, several European Union countries have gone back into lockdown. France, Belgium and Portugal have reintroduced stringent measures that restrict nonessential travel, even from within the bloc and within what is known as the Schengen Zone, which includes nonmember countries that allow free movement across their borders.

“Right now, in some European countries, it might feel like you are in the middle of a storm, which is how we felt in the U.K a couple of months ago,” said Gloria Guevara Manzo, chief executive and president of the World Travel & Tourism Council, a forum that works with governments to raise awareness about the travel industry.

European Travel Agents’ and Tour Operators’ Association. “But right now, we are not talking about Americans visiting Europe.”

American travelers do have some options, though: Having brought the virus under control, Iceland is allowing all vaccinated travelers — including those from the United States — to enter without being subject to Covid-19 testing or quarantine measures.

Greece, one of the most popular European summer destinations for Americans, announced this month that it would reopen for all tourists in mid-May, as long as they show proof of vaccination, antibodies or a negative Covid-19 test result before traveling. All visitors will be subject to random testing upon arrival.

Turkey said it would not require international travelers to be vaccinated this summer and will re-evaluate testing policies after April 15.

Other European countries like Slovenia and Estonia are letting in vaccinated tourists, but not those from the United States.

several cruise lines have announced “staycation sailings” around the British Isles starting in June.

Many Britons traveled last summer when the virus seemed to have ebbed, and a recent study found that they brought a significant number of infections back into the United Kingdom. A ban on British travel abroad for leisure was enacted on Jan. 4 and was expected to expire in May, but the government introduced legislation this week that lays down the legal framework to extend the restrictions until the end of June.

It is not clear when exactly the United Kingdom lift its quarantine requirements for more tourism, but Visit Britain forecasts a slow recovery that will start toward late summer.

Earlier this month, the European Commission proposed a digital travel certificate that would prove that a person has been vaccinated, received a negative Covid-19 test result or recovered after contracting the virus.

States have different quarantine requirements, so travelers should check what their state requires before booking a vacation abroad.

Each country sets its own rules, but most safety protocols are unlikely to change this summer, even for those who have been vaccinated.

Visitors will be expected to wear masks and keep a safe distance in public spaces. Hotels, restaurants and event spaces will have enhanced cleaning protocols in place, and some may impose capacity restrictions.

Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. And sign up for our weekly Travel Dispatch newsletter to receive expert tips on traveling smarter and inspiration for your next vacation. Dreaming up a future getaway or just armchair traveling? Check out our 52 Places list for 2021.

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The Places You Can’t Fly to Anymore

The pandemic has changed how we fly, dramatically reducing the number of flights around the world. To show how Covid-19 has altered the skies, The Wall Street Journal analyzed flight data from aviation data provider Cirium Core for a 24-hour period—Friday, Feb. 28, 2020. That was a month after the new coronavirus forced Wuhan, China, into lockdown and a week after Italy ordered Europe’s first lockdowns. It was still before other big countries initiated lockdowns and travel bans to slow the spread.

Feb. 28, 2020

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 28, 2020

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 28, 2020

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 28, 2020

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 28, 2020

International route

Domestic route

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 28, 2020

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 28, 2020

Here is the same 24-hour period a year later, on Friday, Feb. 26, 2021. At big airline hubs, such as New York, London, Dubai and Singapore, possible destinations have fallen sharply. Many routes still in operation are serviced by far fewer flights a day.

Feb. 26, 2021

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 26, 2021

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 26, 2021

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 26, 2021

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 26, 2021

International route

Domestic route

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 26, 2021

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 26, 2021

International routes were down 60%, mostly because of a patchwork of differing travel bans by countries around the world. Even without travel restrictions, passengers remain wary. U.S. domestic routes were down 16%. Here’s a breakdown:

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26, 2021

Number of routes

Number of flights

International

International

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26, 2021

Number of routes

Number of flights

International

International

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26, 2021

Number of routes

Number of flights

International

International

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26, 2021

Number of routes

International

Number of flights

International

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26, 2021

Number of routes

International

Number of flights

International

The U.S. shed more routes than anywhere, but that’s because it’s such a bigger aviation market. As a percentage of total routes, Europe took a bigger hit. In the U.K., airlines flew 78% fewer routes. A few small markets, like the Marshall Islands and Syria, didn’t have a single flight in or out on Feb. 26 this year. Meanwhile, Chinese domestic flights were brisk amid that country’s quick recovery.

Number of routes by country

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26,

2021

Number of routes by country

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26,

2021

Number of routes by country

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26,

2021

Number of routes by country

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26,

2021

Number of routes by country

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26,

2021

You can still get to most international destinations from America’s largest hubs, including New York, though your choice of flights is much smaller. Not so for smaller hubs. Cincinnati’s airport, for instance, no longer offers near-daily flights to Paris.

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26, 2021

Traffic with Europe

dropped significantly

U.S. domestic routes

fell just 16%

San Francisco

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Los Angeles

Mexico City

Mexico City

Panama City

Panama City

Routes between the U.S.

and Latin America

held relatively steady

São Paulo

São Paulo

Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 26, 2021

Feb. 28, 2020

Traffic with Europe

dropped significantly

U.S. domestic routes

fell just 16%

San Francisco

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Los Angeles

Mexico City

Mexico City

Panama City

Panama City

Routes between the U.S.

and Latin America

held relatively steady

São Paulo

São Paulo

Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 28, 2020

International route

Domestic route

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Mexico City

Panama City

São Paulo

Buenos Aires

Feb. 26, 2021

Traffic with Europe

dropped significantly

U.S. domestic routes

fell just 16%

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Mexico City

Panama City

Routes between the U.S.

and Latin America

held relatively steady

São Paulo

Buenos Aires

Feb. 28, 2020

International route

Domestic route

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Mexico City

Panama City

São Paulo

Buenos Aires

Feb. 26, 2021

Traffic with Europe

dropped significantly

U.S. domestic routes

fell just 16%

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Mexico City

Panama City

Routes between U.S.

and Latin America

held relatively steady

São Paulo

Buenos Aires

Feb. 28, 2020

International route

Domestic route

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Mexico City

Panama City

São Paulo

Buenos Aires

Feb. 26, 2021

Traffic with Europe

dropped significantly

U.S. domestic routes

fell just 16%

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Mexico City

Panama City

Routes between

the U.S. and Latin America

held relatively steady

São Paulo

Buenos Aires

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 28, 2020

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Mexico City

Panama City

São Paulo

Buenos Aires

Feb. 26, 2021

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Mexico City

Panama City

São Paulo

Buenos Aires

U.S. domestic routes fell just 16%

Traffic with Europe dropped significantly

Routes between U.S. and Latin America held

relatively steady

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 28, 2020

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Mexico City

Panama City

São Paulo

Buenos Aires

Feb. 26, 2021

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Mexico City

Panama City

São Paulo

Buenos Aires

U.S. domestic routes fell just 16%

Traffic with Europe dropped significantly

Routes between the U.S. and

Latin America held relatively steady

From the U.S., there were still plenty of routes to Mexico and Latin America. But flying north of the border was much harder. A year ago, there were 13 routes a day between the U.S. and Spain. On Feb. 26 of this year there was just one. Routes to Iceland and New Zealand, popular tourism destinations, disappeared that day.

Number of routes with the U.S., selected destinations

Feb. 28,

2020

Feb. 26,

2021

Dominican

Republic

Puerto Rico

Costa Rica

Switzerland

New Zealand

Number of routes with the U.S., selected destinations

Feb. 28,

2020

Feb. 26,

2021

Dominican

Republic

Puerto Rico

Costa Rica

Switzerland

New

Zealand

Number of routes with the U.S., selected destinations

Feb. 28,

2020

Feb. 26,

2021

Dominican

Republic

Puerto Rico

Costa Rica

New

Zealand

Switzerland

Number of routes with the U.S.,

selected destinations

Feb. 28,

2020

Feb. 26,

2021

Dominican

Republic

Puerto Rico

Costa Rica

Switzerland

New

Zealand

Number of routes with the U.S.,

selected destinations

Feb. 28,

2020

Feb. 26,

2021

Dominican

Republic

Puerto Rico

Costa Rica

Switzerland

New

Zealand

European travel has been significantly affected by a patchwork of national travel bans between neighboring countries. Flights inside Europe fell 73% between the two dates. There were just six flights between Paris and London, for instance, compared with 26 flights last year. London-Dubai, a once-popular route for business and pleasure, was down to just two daily flights, compared with 18 last year. Last February, there were 35 flights between two of Europe’s most important financial and diplomatic hubs—London and Geneva. This year, none.

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26, 2021

Flight volume inside

Europe fell 73%

Russian domestic routes

fell just 3.1%

Transatlantic traffic

thinned considerably

Travel with

Asia fell

Canary Islands

Canary Islands

Addis Ababa

Addis Ababa

Across Africa,

flight volume fell 39%

The two Middle East hubs

saw routes fall 30%,

volume fell more than 50%

International route

Johannesburg

Johannesburg

Domestic route

Russian domestic

routes fell just 3.1%

Flight volume inside

Europe fell 73%

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26, 2021

Transatlantic traffic

thinned considerably

Travel with

Asia fell

Canary Islands

Canary Islands

Addis Ababa

Addis Ababa

Across Africa,

flight volume fell 39%

Johannesburg

International route

Johannesburg

The two Middle East hubs

saw routes fall 30%,

volume fell more than 50%

Domestic route

Feb. 28, 2020

International route

Domestic route

Canary Islands

Addis Ababa

Johannesburg

Feb. 26, 2021

Flight volume inside

Europe fell 73%

Russian domestic routes

fell just 3.1%

Transatlantic traffic

thinned considerably

Travel with

Asia fell

Canary Islands

Addis Ababa

Across Africa,

flight volume fell 39%

The two Middle East hubs

saw routes fall 30%,

volume fell more than 50%

Johannesburg

Feb. 28, 2020

International route

Domestic route

Canary Islands

Addis Ababa

Johannesburg

Flight volume inside

Europe fell 73%

Feb. 26, 2021

Russian domestic routes

fell just 3.1%

Transatlantic traffic

thinned considerably

Travel with

Asia fell

Canary Islands

Addis Ababa

Across Africa,

flight volume fell 39%

The two Middle East hubs

saw routes fall 30%,

volume fell more than 50%

Johannesburg

Feb. 28, 2020

International route

Domestic route

Canary Islands

Addis Ababa

Johannesburg

Flight volume inside

Europe fell 73%

Feb. 26, 2021

Russian domestic

routes fell just 3.1%

Transatlantic traffic

thinned considerably

Travel with

Asia fell

Canary Islands

Addis Ababa

Across Africa,

flight volume fell 39%

Johannesburg

The two Middle East hubs

saw routes fall 30%,

volume fell more than 50%

Domestic route

International route

Feb. 28, 2020

Canary Islands

Addis Ababa

Johannesburg

Feb. 26, 2021

Canary Islands

Addis Ababa

Johannesburg

Transatlantic traffic thinned considerably

Flight volume inside Europe fell 73%

Russian domestic routes fell just 3.1%

Less traffic with Asia

The two Middle East hubs saw routes fall 30%,

volume fell more than 50%

Across Africa, flight volume fell 39%

Domestic route

International route

Feb. 28, 2020

Canary Islands

Addis Ababa

Johannesburg

Feb. 26, 2021

Canary Islands

Addis Ababa

Johannesburg

Transatlantic traffic thinned considerably

Flight volume inside Europe fell 73%

Russian domestic routes fell just 3.1%

Travel with Asia fell

The two Middle East hubs saw routes fall

30%, volume fell more than 50%

Across Africa, flight volume fell 39%

In Asia, international travel fell sharply. Chinese overseas flights were down 73%. Domestic flights, though, were up 124%, marking a strong recovery from that country’s early lockdown. Trying to go to Australia? There were just two routes this year on the day from the U.S., from Los Angeles and San Francisco, compared with 10 last year.

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26, 2021

China’s international flight volumes

dropped by 73%, but domestic

flights rose 124%

68% of routes between

China and Japan, popular

with tourists, disappeared

These two regional hubs

both suffered route declines

of between 55% and 65%

95% of routes between

China and Thailand, another

big tourism connection, vanished

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26, 2021

68% of routes

between China and

Japan, popular with

tourists, disappeared

China’s international flight

volumes dropped by 73%,

but domestic flights

rose 124%

These two regional hubs

both suffered route declines

of between 55% and 65%

95% of routes between

China and Thailand, another

big tourism connection, vanished

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 28, 2020

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 26, 2021

China’s international flight volumes

dropped by 73%, but domestic

flights rose 124%

68% of routes between

China and Japan, popular

with tourists, disappeared

These two regional hubs

both suffered route declines

of between 55% and 65%

95% of routes between

China and Thailand, another

big tourism connection, vanished

Feb. 28, 2020

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 26, 2021

68% of routes between

China and Japan, popular

with tourists, disappeared

China’s international flight

volumes dropped by 73%,

but domestic flights

rose 124%

These two regional hubs

both suffered route declines

of between 55% and 65%

95% of routes between

China and Thailand, another

big tourism connection, vanished

Feb. 28, 2020

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 26, 2021

China’s international flight

volumes dropped by 73%,

but domestic flights

rose 124%

68% of routes between

China and Japan,

popular with tourists,

disappeared

These two regional hubs

both suffered route declines

of between 55% and 65%

95% of routes between

China and Thailand, another

big tourism connection, vanished

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26, 2021

China’s international flight volumes dropped by

73%, but domestic flights rose 124%

68% of routes between China and Japan,

popular with tourists, disappeared

These two regional hubs both suffered

route declines of between 55% and 65%

95% of routes between China and Thailand,

another big tourism connection, vanished

International route

Domestic route

Feb. 28, 2020

Feb. 26, 2021

China’s international flight volumes

dropped by 73%, but domestic flights

rose 124%

68% of routes between China and Japan,

popular with tourists, disappeared

These two regional hubs both suffered

route declines of between 55% and 65%

95% of routes between China and Thailand,

another big tourism connection, vanished

Vaccinations are rolling out around the world, giving airline executives hope for a quick return to pre-pandemic days. Most travel experts, however, don’t see that happening until at least next year.

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