But the vaccination campaign has slowed down since last month because of supply shortages and the need to start distributing second doses. The number of daily first doses on average last month was 113,000, far below the average of 350,000 daily doses administered in March.

Only those over 38-years-old are currently eligible for vaccination.

It remains unclear whether the country has the vaccine supplies on hand to move rapidly to surge more into communities around the country to speed up vaccinating younger age groups.

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U.K. May Change Vaccine Protocol to Tackle India Covid Variant

The British authorities said on Friday that they are considering changing vaccination protocols and reintroducing local lockdowns to stem the spread of a coronavirus variant first detected in India, a warning sign for countries that are easing restrictions even though their own vaccination campaigns are incomplete.

The numbers of cases involving the variant, known as B.1.617, rose from 520 last week to 1,313 cases this week in Britain, according to official statistics.

The extent to which the variant has spread globally is unclear, because most countries lack the genomic surveillance capabilities employed in England.

That surveillance capability has allowed health officials in Britain to spot the rise of concerning variants more quickly than other nations, offering an early warning system of sorts as a variant seen in one nation almost invariably pops up in others.

might not be quite as effective against B.1.617. The agency said, however, that vaccines were likely to remain potent enough to provide protection from serious illness and death.

British officials have said the variant appears to be more contagious than one detected last year in Kent, southeast of London, which swept across Britain in the winter, forcing the country into one of the world’s longest national lockdowns. The British variant has now been found in countries around the world.

The variant first detected in India has been found in virus sample from 44 countries, the W.H.O. said this week.

The U.N. agency has designated the B.1.617 variant as a variant of concern.

Christina Pagel, a member of a group of scientists advising the government, known as SAGE, said postponing next week’s reopening would avoid “risking more uncertainty, more damaging closures and longer recovery from a worse situation.”

“We need to learn from previous experience,” Dr. Pagel, the director of the Clinical Operational Research Unit at University College London, said on Twitter.

Britain briefly reopened its economy at the end of last year, only to abruptly impose new restrictions that remained in place for months as it fought a deadly wave of infections.

In an attempt to offer at least partial protection to as many people as quickly as possible, Britain spaced injections between doses for two-stage coronavirus vaccines up to 12 weeks after the first vaccines were approved in December. That was far longer than the three- or four-week interval employed by most other countries.

The speedy rollout saved at least 11,700 lives and prevented 33,000 people from becoming seriously ill in England, according to research released by Public Health England on Friday.

But the campaign has slowed down since last month because of supply shortages and the need to start distributing second doses. The number of daily first doses on average last month was 113,000, far below the average of 350,000 daily doses administered in March.

Only those over 38-years-old are currently eligible for vaccination.

Officials suggested Friday that the spread of the B1.617 variant may force a shift in strategy: In areas where the variant is spreading, they may move up the second doses in order to provide stronger protection and allow younger people — at the moment, only those who are at least 38-years-old are eligible to be vaccinated — in multigenerational households to be inoculated.

But it was unclear whether the country had the vaccine supplies on hand to move rapidly.

Mr. Zahawi, the vaccines minister, said Britain would “flex the vaccine program according to the clinical advice.” He also urged people to regularly use free P.C.R. tests that have been available since last month, and to “isolate, isolate, isolate” if they test positive for the coronavirus.

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A Phishing Test Promised Workers a Covid Bonus. Now They Want an Apology.

A report released this week by Britain’s National Cyber Security Centre showed a 15-fold increase in the number of scams removed from the internet, and said the agency had taken more fraudulent sites offline in the past year than in the previous three years combined.

In the first quarter of this year, according to government statistics, almost 40 percent of businesses in Britain reported digital breaches or attacks, with an average cost for medium to large firms of around 13,400 pounds, or $18,800. And the cost of a serious breach can be far more daunting: One study conducted last year by the Ponemon Institute for IBM Security, which interviewed 524 organizations across 17 countries, found that data breaches in 2020 cost an organization on average $3.86 million.

Phishing has also been used by scammers attempting to swindle grandparents out of their savings, by intelligence agencies to gain information and diplomatic leverage, and by IT departments to see if employees are paying attention.

“A sufficiently well-designed phishing email will get clicked on 100 percent of the time,” said Steven J. Murdoch, a professor of security engineering at University College London, adding all companies were vulnerable to phishing.

But testing employees with fake emails about bonuses was “entrapment,” he said, adding that it risked harming the relationship between companies and employees, which was crucial for security. Some attacks, as an example, come from disgruntled employees, he said. “People responsible for fire safety don’t set fire to the building,” he said of the tests.

Rather than discouraging employees from clicking on any link, he said, more effective strategies could include blocking phishing emails, installing software to protect against ransomware, and addressing use of passwords.

Alienating employees also meant they could be less likely to report suspicious activity to their company departments, a crucial method of stopping attacks from becoming more serious, said Jessica Barker, a co-founder of Cygenta, a cybersecurity company.

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Sleeping Too Little in Middle-Age May Raise Dementia Risk, Study Finds

The correlation also held whether or not people were taking sleep medication and whether or not they had a mutation called ApoE4 that makes people more likely to develop Alzheimer’s, Dr. Sabia said.

“The study found a modest, but I would say somewhat important association of short sleep and dementia risk,” said Pamela Lutsey, an associate professor of epidemiology and community health at the University of Minnesota, who was not involved in the research. “Short sleep is very common and because of that, even if it’s modestly associated with dementia risk, it can be important at a societal level. Short sleep is something that we have control over, something that you can change.”

Still, as with other research in this area, the study had limitations that prevent it from proving that inadequate sleep can help cause dementia. Most of the sleep data was self-reported, a subjective measure that isn’t always accurate, experts said.

At one point, nearly 4,000 participants did have sleep duration measured by accelerometers and that data was consistent with their self-reported sleep times, the researchers said. Still, that quantitative measure came late in the study, when participants were about 69, making it less useful than if it had been obtained at younger ages.

In addition, most participants were white and better educated and healthier than the overall British population. And in relying on electronic medical records for dementia diagnoses, researchers might have missed some cases. They also could not identify exact types of dementia.

“It’s always difficult to know what to conclude from these kinds of studies,” wrote Robert Howard, a professor of old age psychiatry at University College London, one of several experts who submitted comments about the study to Nature Communications. “Insomniacs — who probably don’t need something else to ruminate about in bed,” he added, “shouldn’t worry that they are heading for dementia unless they get off to sleep immediately.”

There are compelling scientific theories about why too little sleep might exacerbate the risk of dementia, especially Alzheimer’s. Studies have found that cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid, a protein that clumps into plaques in Alzheimer’s, “go up if you sleep-deprive people,” Dr. Musiek said. Other studies of amyloid and another Alzheimer’s protein, tau, suggest that “sleep is important for clearing proteins from the brain or limiting the production,” he said.

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Some Children With Covid-Related Syndrome Develop Neurological Symptoms

Reports about the mysterious Covid-related inflammatory syndrome that afflicts some children and teenagers have mostly focused on physical symptoms: rash, abdominal pain, red eyes and, most seriously, heart problems like low blood pressure, shock and difficulty pumping.

Now, a new report shows that a significant number of young people with the syndrome also develop neurological symptoms, including hallucinations, confusion, speech impairments and problems with balance and coordination. The study of 46 children treated at one hospital in London found that just over half — 24 — experienced such neurological symptoms, which they had never had before.

Those patients were about twice as likely as those without neurological symptoms to need ventilators because they were “very unwell with systemic shock as part of their hyperinflammatory state,” said an author of the study, Dr. Omar Abdel-Mannan, a clinical research fellow at University College London’s Institute of Neurology. Patients with neurological symptoms were also about twice as likely to require medication to improve the heart’s ability to squeeze, he said.

The condition, called Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), typically emerges two to six weeks after a Covid infection, often one that produces only mild symptoms or none at all. The syndrome is rare, but can be very serious. The latest data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports 3,165 cases in 48 states, Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia, including 36 deaths.

study published last month in JAMA Neurology, 126 of 616 young people with the syndrome admitted to 61 U.S. hospitals last year had neurological issues, including 20 with what the researchers described as “life-threatening” problems like strokes or “severe encephalopathy.”

The new report, presented as preliminary research on Tuesday as part of an annual conference of the American Academy of Neurology, evaluated children under 18 who were admitted to Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) between April and September of last year with the syndrome (it has a different name and acronym, PIMS-TS, in Britain). The data is also included in a preprint of a larger study that has not yet been peer-reviewed.

As was the case with other studies of the syndrome, including in the United States, the researchers said a majority of those afflicted were “nonwhite,” a pattern that public health experts believe reflects the disproportionate way the pandemic has affected communities of color. Nearly two-thirds of the patients were male, and the median age was 10.

All 24 of the patients with neurological symptoms had headaches and 14 had encephalopathy, a general term that can involve confusion, problems with memory or attention and other types of altered mental function. Six of the children were experiencing hallucinations, including “describing people in the room that were not there or seeing cartoons or animals moving on the walls,” Dr. Abdel-Mannan said. He said some experienced auditory hallucinations involving “hearing voices of people not present.”

Six of the children had weakness or difficulty controlling muscles used in speech. Four had balance or coordination problems. One child had seizures and three children had peripheral nerve abnormalities including weakness in facial or shoulder muscles. One patient’s peripheral nerve damage led to a foot-drop problem that required the use of crutches and a recommendation for a nerve transplant, said Dr. Abdel-Mannan, who is also a senior resident in pediatric neurology at GOSH.

Some of the patients underwent brain scans, nerve conduction tests or electroencephalograms (EEGs), including 14 who showed slower electrical activity in their brains, the study reported.

Thirteen of the 24 with neurological symptoms needed to be placed on ventilators and 15 needed medication to improve their heart contractions, Dr. Abdel-Mannan said. By contrast, only three of the 22 children without neurological issues needed ventilators and seven needed such heart medication, he said. None of the children with hallucinations needed psychotropic medications.

Three children had to be hospitalized again after their initial stay, one for another episode of encephalopathy and two for infectious complications, Dr. Abdel-Mannan said, but he added that there were no deaths and “almost all children made a complete functional recovery.”

Dr. Abdel-Mannan said a team led by the study’s senior author, Dr. Yael Hacohen, will be following patients who had the syndrome — both those who had neurological symptoms and those who did not. They will conduct brain scans and cognitive assessments to see if the children experience any long-term cognitive or psychological effects.

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