I Am Vanessa Guillen Act, named for Army specialist who law enforcement officials said was killed by another soldier at Fort Hood last year. The case set off a deep examination into the culture of the Army base and a military in which assault thrives. Ms. Guillen’s family has said she was being sexually harassed before her death, but she had feared reporting it to her chain of command.

Over a dozen Army officials were fired or suspended as a result of the report.

The efforts will no doubt face resistance within and outside the military.

“I continue to remain highly doubtful that this change in and of itself will have significant impact on how cases are handed,” said Victor M. Hansen, a professor at New England Law Boston and a former military lawyer. “These are very complex, difficult cases that have very little to do with whether it’s a commander or attorney making the decision to prosecute them.”

Others disagree. “Public confidence in the administration of justice today requires that prosecutorial decisions involving serious crimes be made by persons with legal training,” Mr. Fidell said.

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