prepandemic reductions in poverty — child poverty fell to a record low — and warned that a lasting aid expansion would put that progress at risk.

“This has been on the agenda of Democrats and left-leaning advocacy groups for a long time — they’re expanding programs that discourage work and encourage dependency,” she said. “There’s a clear intention to make these changes permanent, and I think many Republicans have been asleep at the wheel.”

Census Bureau survey found that, over the previous week alone, 8.4 percent of adults said their households “sometimes” lacked enough to eat and 2.3 percent said they “often” did. That translates into 23 million hungry adults, plus millions of children.

Differences in data collection complicate prepandemic comparisons, though multiple estimates suggest hunger levels higher than those of the Great Recession.

At the John Boner Neighborhood Center in Indianapolis, requests for emergency food have become so common that the agency has started to stock food boxes.

“We have people who’ve never needed assistance before, and we have that population that needed it before but need it more now,” said Carla James, a staff member.

Interviews with neighborhood residents suggest the aid expansions have done much to reduce hardship, but with their reach varying greatly from household to household.

While Ms. Kirby got no unemployment aid, Sonya Radford quickly received jobless benefits, which more than replaced the income she lost when her job as a nursing assistant ended, and she enrolled in SNAP. That combination left her better able to feed her three children than before the pandemic, when she often relied on food pantries.

“With the benefits, we’re pretty well off,” she said.

demonstrating the value of the aid expansions, most of them temporary, will lead to permanent change. “We can build a stronger, longer-lasting safety net,” Ms. Dean said.

Speaking at an anti-hunger conference last month, the agriculture secretary, Tom Vilsack, outlined a kaleidoscope of recent initiatives. They include new subsidies to food banks, an outreach campaign in WIC, food aid for homeless young adults, grants for Puerto Rico and the Mariana Islands, and efforts to deliver more nutritious food.

Perhaps the most important change since the start of the pandemic involves the temporary growth of SNAP benefits, which reach about one in eight Americans and one in four children.

The Biden administration settled legal challenges last week that will further raise benefits beyond those Democrats twice pushed through Congress last year. A federal judge ruled last fall that the Trump administration had erred in denying the poorest 40 percent of households the initial increase; in agreeing to raise those benefits, the Biden administration officials will expand assistance by more than a $1 billion a month.

benefits would have to grow 27 percent (or $15 billion a year in pre-crisis terms) to meet minimal needs.

In 2018, Congress, then under Republican control, authorized the Agriculture Department to re-evaluate the cost of a healthy diet, and Mr. Biden’s order urged officials to accelerate the work. While awaiting an internal study, officials have indicated they expect to raise benefits significantly.

“The Thrifty Food Plan is just too thrifty,” Ms. Dean recently said.

Speaking at the recent conference, Mr. Vilsack cast these efforts as part of a fight for racial justice. A former agriculture secretary under President Barack Obama, he called himself an “older white guy” and added, “I haven’t had the experience of being Black.” But he said an equity commission in the department would re-evaluate policies to ensure racial fairness.

Reassured by a reporter that her benefit increase had not been a mistake, Ms. Kirby, the Indianapolis mother, recently returned to the grocery store where her shortage of funds had led to humiliation in the checkout line.

This time, she brought her children, no longer afraid they would ask for food she could not afford. She bought the frozen pizzas she had been forced to discard in the earlier visit and “some expensive stuff, like meat sauce for spaghetti.”

“I don’t even know how to explain it,” referring to her eased worries. “It’s like a physical relief. I just knew everything would be OK.”

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