In addition to the Group of 20 meeting, officials from the United States and several European nations met with Taliban representatives in Doha in what the European Union described as “an informal exchange at a technical level” that did not constitute recognition of the Taliban as a legitimate government.

E.U. pledge includes 300 million euros for humanitarian aid already announced, along with another 250 million to provide additional support to those “in urgent need, notably in the field of health,” Ms. von der Leyen said.

The money will go to international organizations already working in Afghanistan, as has recent U.S. aid.

The new Taliban government has generally cooperated with U.N. aid agencies, António Guterres, the U.N. secretary general, said on Tuesday, and has “progressively granted access to the areas requested and provided security when needed.”

Although the Taliban kidnapped and murdered foreign aid workers during their two-decade insurgency, they have a keen interest in placating the international community now that they are in power, as they hope to win diplomatic recognition and direct economic support to rebuild an impoverished country gutted by decades of war.

Prime Minister Mario Draghi of Italy, who hosted the Group of 20 meeting, called it “the first multilateral response to the Afghan crisis.” Speaking at a news conference at the end of the meeting, he added, “Multilateralism is returning.”

Mr. Draghi said the leaders’ discussions had moved beyond blame for the fall of Afghanistan’s capital, Kabul, an issue he said dominated last month’s U.N. General Assembly gathering, to the question of humanitarian relief. “At least this one allows us to overcome the inevitable differences in points of view,” he said.

Mr. Draghi said that providing aid required talking to — but not formally recognizing — the Taliban.

“There is no alternative to having contacts with them,” he said. “They are essential for this response to be effective.”

Michael Crowley reported from Washington, and Steven Erlanger from Brussels. Emma Bubola contributed reporting from Rome, Thomas Gibbons-Neff from Kabul, Afghanistan, and Zolan Kanno-Youngs from Washington.

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