There are few surprises in the intelligence assessment of Russia. It makes clear despite many viewing Moscow as a declining power, American spy agencies still see it as a pre-eminent threat, noting how a Russian supply chain hacking operation created vulnerabilities in some 18,000 computer networks worldwide. The assessment said while Russia would avoid direct conflict with America, it would use influence campaigns, mercenary operations and military exercises to advance its interests and undermine those of the United States.

While the report emphasizes the traditional kinds of national security threats facing the nation, it does give a nod to the challenges of climate change and global pandemics, which the Biden administration has said the intelligence agencies will study more closely. The threats, for the most part, are long term, but can also have short-term impacts, the report said.

“The American people should know as much as possible about the threats facing our nation and what their intelligence agencies are doing to protect them,” said Avril B. Haines, the director of national intelligence, whose office released the report.

The new report will be followed by congressional testimony by Ms. Haines; William J. Burns, the C.I.A. director; and other top intelligence officials on Wednesday and Thursday.

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