The plea agreement suggested that Mr. Chauvin’s federal sentence be about the same length as the state sentence, 20 to 25 years, giving him the opportunity to do his time in a federal prison where he would be less likely to encounter people he had helped convict when he was an officer.

Three other officers participated in the fatal arrest of Mr. Floyd: two rookies, J. Alexander Kueng and Thomas Lane, and a more experienced officer, Tou Thao, who, along with Mr. Chauvin, arrived on the scene to provide backup. Bystander video of the encounter went viral and all four officers were swiftly fired.

They also faced federal civil rights charges in addition to state murder charges, a move that Mark Osler, a former federal prosecutor and law professor at the University of St. Thomas in the Twin Cities, said was more than a practical safeguard against acquittals or successful appeals in state court.

“It was the federal government making a statement about this case being important nationally,” he said. “And it also was a conviction on something beyond what we saw in the state — it was about the deprivation of civil rights, not just the killing of George Floyd.”

Attorney General Keith Ellison of Minnesota, the prosecutor on the state charges, said it was appropriate that Mr. Chauvin also faced federal civil rights charges. “Federal prosecutors took this case because it was not a typical crime: It was an intentional deprivation of life and liberty that is criminal under federal law,” he said in a statement.

convicted on federal civil rights charges in February, before their state trial. Federal prosecutors have asked for a sentence of about five to six years for Mr. Lane, the only officer who questioned the prolonged restraint of Mr. Floyd, and a “substantially higher” sentence, though not as high as Mr. Chauvin’s, for the other two officers.

Mr. Lane pleaded guilty to a state charge of second-degree manslaughter and is expected to be sentenced in September; prosecutors have asked for three years. Mr. Kueng and Mr. Thao are expected to go on trial on state charges of murder and manslaughter in October.

Mr. Chauvin has been held in state prison in Minnesota since his murder conviction, largely confined to administrative segregation. “I do express empathy to you, Mr. Chauvin, for the conditions you have been confined to since your arrest,” Judge Magnuson said. He said Mr. Chauvin would be on supervised release for five years after completing his prison term.

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