sent faked emails to voters, routing the messages through a Saudi insurance firm and Estonian textbook company to hide their origin.

The Iranian effort essentially employed reverse psychology. Purporting to be from far-right groups, the messages said that if recipients did not vote for Mr. Trump, “we will come after you.” Officials said Iranian operatives hoped the emails would have the opposite of the message’s warning, rallying people to vote for Mr. Biden by thinking Mr. Trump’s supporters were playing dirty campaign tricks.

Iran’s supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, authorized the campaign, the report said.

The report is based on a classified document that the Office of the Director of National Intelligence sent to Congress on Jan. 7. The Biden administration oversaw its declassification but did not rewrite the report done before Mr. Biden took office.

The office is required to deliver a report on election interference within 60 days of the vote, but the Trump administration delayed the 2020 report until Jan. 6, the day the election results were certified.

On Jan. 7, intelligence officials released declassified letters about politicization of intelligence, and a classified report on the election.

Within those documents, the section on China’s influence operations was the most divisive within the intelligence community. Intelligence agencies concluded while China was trying to win influence at among state and local officials, unlike Russia and Iran did not try to interfere in the national election or affect the outcome of the presidential vote.

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