law against teaching that people of any particular race or gender were “inherently racist, sexist, or oppressive,” Ms. López Burlingame said she did not shy away from discussing the history lessons that often accompany her Spanish lessons, including slavery across Latin America.

But she still harbors some fear that her students’ parents could report her to local officials if she says something they don’t like.

“When kids ask me questions, I pause longer than normal to think about how I am going to respond,” she said. “If I say the wrong thing, those kids will go home to their parents, who will do what they are doing all this year: going bonkers.”

David Ring, a social studies teacher in Lubbock, Texas, usually celebrates Black History Month by asking his high school students to read Dr. King’s “Letter From Birmingham Jail.” That is in addition to topics he covers all year, including redlining.

Mr. Ring, who is Black and Korean and is often the only person of color in the room, said he wanted his students to learn that the civil rights movement was not over.

“For them, the year 2000 is like ancient history, and so trying to get them to understand that the 1960s weren’t that long ago, it’s baby steps,” he said.

rules approved by Utah’s board of education last year — which echoed those of other states — were hard to follow because they were so vague. That has made her nervous about being targeted, she said, but she has tried to keep those fears out of the classroom.

“If anything, it has strengthened my resolve that this is important work, and I need to keep doing it,” she said.

Mr. Parker said that despite his concerns about Oklahoma’s new law, he hoped to hold on to his job while being open to the questions and opinions of his students, many of whom are English language learners approaching American history with fresh eyes.

“I always tell them, I don’t care what I say, or what your parents say, about the things that we learn,” he said. “You guys have to start deciding how you feel about it, for yourself.”

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