secure an additional 100 million doses of Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine.

The administration has said those efforts are aimed at having enough vaccine for children, booster doses to confront new variants and unforeseen events. But Jeffrey D. Zients, Mr. Biden’s coronavirus response coordinator, told reporters on Friday that the deal between Johnson & Johnson and Merck would also “help expand capacity and ultimately benefits the world.”

In addition to resisting a push to give away excess doses, Mr. Biden has drawn criticism from liberal Democrats by blocking a request by India and South Africa for a temporary waiver to an international intellectual property agreement that would give poorer countries easier access to generic versions of coronavirus vaccines and treatments.

“I understand why we should be prioritizing our supply with Americans — it was paid for by American taxpayers, President Biden is president of America,” said Representative Ro Khanna, a liberal Democrat from California. “But there is no reason we have to prioritize the profits of pharmaceutical companies over the dignity of people in other countries.”

donation of $4 billion to Covax, the international vaccine initiative backed by the World Health Organization. David Bryden, the director of the Frontline Health Workers Coalition, a nonprofit aimed at supporting health workers in low- and middle-income countries, said money was also desperately needed to help train and pay those workers to administer vaccines overseas.

President George W. Bush responded to the AIDS crisis in Africa in the 2000s with a huge investment of public health funding. More than a decade later, Mr. Bush and the United States remain venerated across much of the continent for the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, or Pepfar, which the government says spent $85 billion and saved 20 million lives.

Michael Gerson, a former White House speechwriter under Mr. Bush and a policy adviser who helped devise the Pepfar program, said that its effect had been both moral and strategic, and that the program had earned the United States “a tremendous amount of good will” in Africa.

“I think the principle here should be that the people who need it most should get it no matter where they live,” he said. “It doesn’t make much moral sense to give a healthy American 24-year-old the vaccine before a frontline worker in Liberia.”

But, he added, “that’s very hard for an American politician to explain.”

Ana Swanson contributed reporting

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