poll released Thursday showed that a majority of French people were skeptical of the new lockdown’s ultimate effects. In findings that reflected the population’s fatigue, 70 percent of French respondents said they approved of the new national lockdown, but 46 percent said that they planned to flout the measures.

opened psychological wounds and left them in deep economic uncertainty, two-thirds of those surveyed said they would break the new rules.

In a country that is acutely sensitive to its rank in the global pecking order, France’s frequent mishandling of the epidemic and subsequent vaccination campaign has led to widespread hand-wringing. Last year, France found itself dependent on China and other nations for the masks, test kits and other basic tools to fight the outbreak.

This time, the country finds itself entirely dependent on outside help for its vaccines — a crushing blow to the nation that produced Louis Pasteur and enjoys a long history of medical breakthroughs.

China and Russia have deployed their own vaccines in their quest for global influence, France has been relegated to the position of bystander.

In late January, the Pasteur Institute announced that it would abandon research on its vaccine candidate after disappointing trial results, just a month after Sanofi, France’s biggest pharmaceutical company, said that its own vaccine was unlikely to be ready before the end of 2021, at best.

“It’s a sign of decline of the country and this decline is unacceptable,” François Bayrou, recently named commissioner for long-term government planning by Mr. Macron, said in a radio interview in January.

The problems with the vaccines have left many French of all age groups deeply skeptical and pessimistic.

“I’m still waiting to see, but I think that believing in a return to normal is an illusion,’’ said Victor Cormier, 22, a student.

Andrée Girard, 61, a retiree, said she had been unable to book an appointment to get vaccinated. She didn’t believe the new restrictions would curb the epidemic for good and feared that France was stuck in a “stop and go” pattern for the foreseeable future.

Referring to Mr. Macron’s pledge in his Wednesday announcement that France would start reopening in mid-May, Ms. Girard said, “I’m skeptical about a light at the end of the tunnel. They’ve been making promises for the past year that haven’t been kept.’’

“I don’t believe it, I don’t believe it anymore,’’ she said. “I don’t know if we’ll get back our old life.’’

Gaëlle Fournier contributed reporting.

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